The following Bibliography was produced by the State Electronic Record Initiative (SERI) Education Subcommittee, July 2014.

Open Archival Information System Reference Model

  • Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems. Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System. CCSDS 650.0-B-1. Washington, D.C.: CCSDS Secretariat, 2002.     Note: This version of the standard has been formally approved by ISO, the international standards body, and is identical to the ISO 14721:2003 standard.
  • Consultative Committee on Space Data Systems. Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System. Draft Recommended Standard. CCSDS 660.0-P-1.1. Washington, D.C.: CCSDS Secretariat, 2009.    Note: This version contains improvements and clarifications made in response to internal and user community review.
  • Consultative Committee on Space Data Systems. Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System. Recommended Practice, Issue 2. CCSDS 650.0-M-2. Washington, DC: CCSDS Secretariat, 2012.    Note: This version clarifies Authenticity and other key concepts, features corrected and improved diagrams, and adds Access Rights Information to Preservation Description Information.

Policies and Strategies

Costs and Funding Sources

Repository Certification and Organizational Assessments

Getting Started and Real World Examples

  • Kenney, Anne R. and Nancy Y. McGovern. “The Five Organizational Stages of Digital Preservation.” In Digital Libraries: A Vision for the Twenty-first Century, a Festschrift to Honor Wendy Lougee on the Occasion of Her Departure from the University of Michigan, ed. Patricia Hodges, Mark Sandler, Maria Bonn and John Price Wilkin. SPO Scholarly Monograph Series. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Scholarly Publishing Office, 2003.

Electronic Records Management



Open Standards and File Formats

  • Prom, Christopher J. Preserving E-mail. DPC Technology Watch Report 11-01. [Heslington, U.K.]: Digital Preservation Coalition, 2011.

Web Archiving

Archival Storage


  • Caplan, Priscilla. Understanding PREMIS. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress Network Development and MARC Standards Office, 2009.
  • Evans, Joanne and Nadav Rouche. “Utilizing Systems Development Methods in Archival Systems Research: Building a Metadata Schema Registry.” Archival Science 4(3-4) (2004): 315-334.  Note: Electronic copies of this article may be purchased from Springer and other commercial services.
  • Evans, Joanne, Sue McKemmish and Karuna Bhoday. “Create Once, Use Many Times: The Clever Use of Recordkeeping Metadata for Multiple Archival Purposes.” Archival Science 5(1) (2005): 17-42.  Note: Electronic copies of this article may be purchased from Springer and other commercial services.
  • ISO. Geographic Information—Metadata. ISO 19115:2003.   This standard “defines the schema required for describing geographic information and services. It provides information about the identification, the extent, the quality, the spatial and temporal schema, spatial reference, and distribution of digital geographic data.”   This standard may be purchased from ISO.
  • Library of Congress: “ALTO: Technical Metadata for Optical Character Recognition.”   ALTO (Analyzed Layout and Text Object) is a XML schema for technical metadata describing the layout and content of physical text resources, such as pages of a book or a newspaper. It most commonly serves as an extension schema used within the Metadata Encoding and Transmission Schema (METS) administrative metadata section. However, it can also be used independently.
  • Library of Congress. “AudioMD and VideoMD: Technical Metadata for Audio and Video.”   These XML schemas detail technical metadata for audio- and video-based digital objects. They often serve as extension schemas within the Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS) administrative metadata section or in the PREMIS element. They are also suitable for use as standalone metadata documents or may be considered for incorporation into other metadata schemas. 
  • Library of Congress. “MADS: Metadata Authority Descriptive Schema."  MADS is an XML schema that may be used to provide metadata about agents (people, organizations), events, and terms (topics, geographics, genres, etc.). It is a companion to the Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS).
  • Library of Congress. “MIX: NISO Metadata for Images in XML Schema.”  The Library of Congress’ Network Development and MARC Standards Office, in partnership with the NISO Technical Metadata for Digital Still Images Standards Committee and other interested experts, is developing an XML schema for a set of technical data elements required to manage digital image collections.
  • Library of Congress. “MODS: Metadata Objects Descriptive Standards.”  MODS is an XML schema for a bibliographic element set that may be used for a variety of purposes. It is fuller than Dublin Core and simpler and more user-friendly than MARC.
  • Library of Congress. “PREMIS: Preservation Metadata Maintenance Activity.”   Preservation Metadata: Implementation Strategies (PREMIS) is the international standard for metadata needed to support the long-term preservation and usability of electronic records and other digital objects.
  • Library of Congress. “TextMD: Technical Metadata for Text.”   This XML schema details technical metadata for text-based digital objects. It is most commonly used within the Metadata Encoding and Transmission Schema (METS) administrative metadata section, but can also stand alone or incorporated into the PREMIS element .
  • National Information Standards Organization. Understanding Metadata. Bethesda, Md.: National Information Standards Organization, 2004.

Risk Assessment

Additional Preservation Related Resources

  • Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) Reports.   CLIR has published more than 150 reports on topics relating to analog and digital preservation, digital libraries, economics of information, and information usage trends. Many of these reports are of interest to archivists as well as librarians.
  • Cornell University Library and Inter-University Consortium for Social and Political Research. (2003– ). Digital Preservation Management: Implementing Short-Term Strategies for Long-Term Solutions. Online tutorial developed for the Digital Preservation Management workshop, developed and maintained by Cornell University Library, 2003-2006; extended and maintained by ICPSR, 2007-2011, and now extended and maintained by MIT Libraries, 2012-onward.   This online tutorial introduces archivists and other cultural heritage professionals to the tenets of digital preservation and outlines the basic components of a digital preservation program.
  • D-Lib Magazine.   D-Lib Magazine focuses on new technologies, applications, contextual social and economic issues, and other topics of interest to digital librarians and archivists.
  • Digital Preservation Coalition (DPC). DPC Technology Watch Reports.   These reports focus on specific tools, standards, or topics of interest to archivists and librarians seeking to preserve and provide access to digital materials. They are written for real-world practitioners and are extensively reviewed prior to release.
  • National Information Standards Organization. Syntax for the Digital Object Identifier. ANSI/NISO Z39.84-2005.   This standard “defines the composition and order of the unambiguous alphanumeric identifier string in the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) system used to reference an intellectual property entity in the digital environment.”


Significant Digital Preservation Organizations

  • Digital Preservation Coalition. “Our Digital Memory Accessible Tomorrow.” Accessed 19 June 2013.    The Digital Preservation Coalition (DPC) is a British membership organization that supports digital preservation by promoting knowledge exchange, technical capacity building, quality and integrity assurance, advocacy, and strategic partnerships. It also produces a wide range of publications and other resources.
  • International Internet Preservation Consortium. “A Global Network of Experts Archiving the Web for Future Generations.” Accessed 19 June 2013.   The International Internet Preservation Consortium (IIPC) seeks to improve Web archiving standards, best practices, and tools and promotes Web archiving collaboration and broad access to and use of archived Web content.
  • Library of Congress. “National Digital Stewardship Alliance.” Accessed 19 June 2013.   The National Digital Stewardship Alliance (NDSA) collaborative, volunteer organization of archivists, librarians, content creators, and others committed to the long-term preservation and management of digital content.
  • Library of Congress. “National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program.” Accessed 19 June 2013.   The National Digital Information Infrastructure Preservation Program (NDIIPP) is charged with implementing a national strategy to collect, preserve and make available significant digital content. It works closely with archivists, librarians, content creators, and other stakeholders throughout the nation.
  • National Library of Australia. “Preserving Access to Digital Information (PADI).” Accessed 19 June 2013.   Until 2011, the National Library of Australia maintained PADI, a comprehensive listing of resources relating to all aspects of digital preservation. Archived copies of the PADI site are still accessible, and many of the resources listed within them remain useful.
  • Open Source Initiative.  "The Open Source Initiative."  Accessed 19 June 2013.   The Open Source Initiative promotes and advocates for the usage of open source software and seeks to bring together the varied constituencies within the open source community.

Significant Projects and Programs

An Inter-Institutional Model for Stewardship (AIMS)

Binghamton University, SUNY

Bodleian Electronic Archives and Manuscripts (BEAM)

Cultural, Artistic and Scientific Knowledge for Preservation, Access and Retrieval (CASPAR)

International Research on Permanent Authentic Records in Electronic Systems (InterPARES) Project

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR)

MetaArchive Cooperative

Personal Archives Accessible in Digital Media (PARADIGM)

National Archives and Records Administration Electronic Records Archives

Preservation and Long-Term Access through NETworked Services (Planets)

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